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ANESTHESIA IN DENTISTRY

ANESTHESIA IN DENTISTRY

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ANESTHESIA IN DENTISTRY

Translated by Zehra Ebrar ŞİMŞEK

How is anesthesia applied in dentistry? What kind of anesthesia is applied to which areas? What happens to those specific areas after anesthesia?

Anesthesia is the condition of loss of sensation, eliminating all senses such as pain, heat, light and touch in the whole or in a part of the living body.

LOCAL ANESTHESIA

1-Infiltration Anesthesia

The injection is made near the apex dentis.

The anesthetic agent reaches the nerve in the foramen apicis dentis by diffusion.

2-Regional Anesthesia

The injection is given close to the nerve.

Anesthesia occurs in the area innervated by the nerve.

a)Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block

An injection is made to the lateral of the raphe pterygomandibularis, medial to the ramus mandible, 5-10 mm above the occlusal plane of the teeth.

All lower teeth, labial gingiva (premolar, canine, incisive alignment) lower lip skin and mucosa, corpus linquae mucosa lose sensation as a result of lingual gingiva injection.

If anesthesia is performed without bone contact; the risk of administering anesthesia to the back of the mandible increases. Thus facial paralysis occurs because facial nerve will be affected.

b) Mental Nerve Block

Anesthetic substance is given near the foramen mental.

The foramen mentale is between the first and second premolar teeth or at the level of the second premolar teeth.

 

The labial gingiva (premolar, canine, incisive alignment) lower lip skin and mucosa lose sensation as a result of injection.

c) Buccal Nerve Block

Injection is made deep into the buccal mucosa behind the last molar tooth. 

The buccal gingiva of the lower molar teeth loses sensation as a result of the injection.

d) Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve Block

Forty-five degrees up-inside-back injection is made from the mucobuccal fold (between ramus mandible-tuber maxillae) at the level of the upper second molar tooth.

As a result of anesthesia, the upper molar teeth (mesiobuccal root of the 1st molar tooth may not be anesthetized.) And buccal gingiva (molar teeth acceleration) lose sensation.

If the injector is pushed back more than necessary; there may be bleeding due to damage to the plexus pterygoideus.

e) Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block

Injection is made just above the mucobuccal fold at the level of the upper second premolar tooth.

Upper premolars, mesiobuccal root of the first molar tooth, buccal gingiva (premolar teeth alignment) lose sensation as a result of injection.

f) Infraorbital and Anterior-Middle Supeior  Alveolar Nerve Block

The anesthetic agent is injected near the foramen infraorbital, which is 5-8 mm below the lower border of the orbit, 4-5 mm medial to the vertical axis of the pupil.

The lower incisor and premolar teeth, mesiobuccal root of the 1st molar tooth and labial gingiva lose sensation as a result of injection.

g) Nasopalatine Nerve Block

The anesthetic agent is administered to the foramen incisivum, deep within the papillae incisiva.

The palatinal gingiva of the upper incisors and canines and the palate mucosa between these teeth lose sensation as a result of the injection.

h) Major Palatine Nerve Block

The anesthetic substance is given to the foramen palatinum majus, which is in the lateral ¼,

 3-4 mm in front of the hard-soft palate border.

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